Key facts: at the beginning of 2019, homosexuality was still criminalised in 73 countries, with fifteen countries implementing the death sentence for homosexual acts. Recent research estimates an HIV prevalence of 15 per cent among men who have sex with men in South Asia, 14 per cent in sub-Saharan Africa and 6.6 per cent in Eastern Europe and Central Asia. Transgender people are one of the groups most affected by the HIV epidemic. They are 49 times more likely to be living with HIV than the general population. Globally, it is estimated that around 19 per cent of transgender women are living with HIV.